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Понемногу обо всем (23) Research in NLP Steve Andreas’ NLP Blog
PUSH
metanymous wrote in metapractice
http://metapractice.livejournal.com/299369.html

I am often asked whether there is any “hard science” academic research that supports NLP. There is some good news, and some bad news.

First the bad news…
(If you don’t like bad news, feel free to skip or skim this section.)

Most of the research directly on NLP concepts was done in the 1980s and 1990s; little or no research has been done directly on NLP in the last decade or so. The vast majority of studies that were done earlier addressed the concept of a primary representational system (PRS) — that people are primarily visual, auditory, or kinesthetic — or the impact of matching sensory predicates on rapport.

There’s a problem with this. Bandler and Grinder had introduced the idea of a PRS primarily as a teaching tool in the 1970s, to direct students’ attention to people’s sensory predicates and eye accessing. Soon after that, they pointed out that the idea of a PRS was a deliberate and gross oversimplification, only somewhat true in a particular problem context. Despite this, the bulk of research, supposedly “on NLP” at that time was done in an attempt to verify or disconfirm this concept.

As those of you with significant NLP Training will already know, whether or not people have a PRS is not in any way central to the field of NLP. We didn’t even mention it in our book Heart of the Mind (1989)...
http://www.realpeoplepress.com/heart-mind-p-36.html

...introducing people to the field, because we didn’t consider it important or useful. PRS doesn’t really have anything to do with the effectiveness of the many methods that we have come to rely on in NLP to get results for people wanting change in their lives. When I sit down with someone to do a session, I can’t recall ever asking myself, “What is this person’s PRS?” It’s just not a useful question to ask.

At the same time, it is often useful to notice what sensory channel the client is using at the moment, or what sensory channel underlies the “problem.” For example it can be useful to notice that someone’s unpleasant feelings result from a critical inner voice, or to notice that many large and close movies of things to do leads to feeling overwhelmed.

Investigating Primary Representation System is a bit like Nasrudin looking for his lost car keys under the street lamp “because the light is better here,” even though he lost them somewhere else. PRS was perceived to be an “easy” thing to study, but the results of those studies don’t tell us anything about the field of NLP.

It’s also worth noting that the studies themselves were often full of research errors. The questionnaires used in an attempt to assess PRS often had confusing self-report questions like, “Do you see yourself as a feeling person,” or “Do you feel you are an auditory person?” As that kind of question clearly reveals, most experimenters were not trained in NLP, did not understand what they were researching, and did not use anyone trained in NLP as a consultant to review their experimental protocols. As a result, there was no control of the language used in the studies, nor control of nonverbal confounding variables such as gestures or voice tone.

For instance, when matching a subject’s visual predicate with a sentence like, “I see what you mean,” a higher-pitched voice, looking up, or a pointing gesture in the upper visual field will be congruent with visual processing, and be more likely to result in rapport. However, a lower-pitched voice, looking down, or a palm-up gesture in the lower visual field will be incongruent, and be less likely to lead to rapport. (Visual processing is typically accompanied by a high voice tone, looking up, and pointing gestures, while kinesthetic processing is often accompanied by a lower voice tone, looking down, and palm-up gesturing.)

As a result of these kinds of mistakes, most of the research was very poor quality. Not surprisingly, there is very little direct academic experimental support for NLP. A research committee working for the United States National Research Council in 1988 found little if any evidence to support NLP’s assumptions or to indicate that it was effective as a strategy for social influence. “It [NLP] assumes that by tracking another’s eye movements and language, an NLP trainer can shape the person’s thoughts, feelings, and opinions. There is no scientific support for these assumptions.”

To summarize, the research that has been done was on the wrong questions, by people who did not understand what they were trying to measure, ignoring linguistic and behavioral confounding variables, so of course the results were negative or inconclusive.

Although researching NLP is definitely doable, effective research in the field of NLP is a challenge for a number of reasons:

Psychological research costs quite a lot of money, which most NLPers do not have. Furthermore, if research is not done in a recognized academic institution, it is usually ignored, even if the double-blind controls and protocols are impeccable.

NLP’s focus on sensory process parameters makes it extremely hard to communicate with academics and mental health professionals, because it is so different from the typical psychiatric focus on content. For instance, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a recognized therapy that is most similar to NLP (and which has the strongest experimental support) focuses entirely on the content of internal auditory dialogue — the words that people say to themselves. CBT ignores the volume of the internal voice, its location in personal space, its direction, its tonality, and tempo, etc. Usually changing these process parameters has a much greater impact on experience than changing the content, and it is much easier. This is something that I have explored in great detail in my e-book Help With Negative Self-talk.
http://www.realpeoplepress.com/pages.php?page=selftalkebook

Advocating rigorous research has not been easy or without resistance from within the field itself. The original developers, and a number of others in the field — some of them widely respected — have explicitly said that NLP is inherently unverifiable by scientific research. One widely regarded leader in the field has even said that since NLP is about subjective experience, it is inherently untestable.

This ignores the fact that dreams — the most subjective experiences that most of us will ever have — have been researched scientifically for decades. A variety of new methods of brain scanning make it possible to do all sorts of experimental work on internal mental events, some of which are not even subjective experiences! For instance, brain scans have been used to detect when a decision is about to be made by a subject seven seconds before the subject becomes aware that they have made a decision.
http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/04/mind_decision

The lack of unified support for securing research grants within the field of NLP has made it awkward to approach potential researchers. Even more of a problem in my view, many who “do NLP” have combined NLP with reflexology, remote viewing, crystal healing, aromatherapy, aura reading, and a host of other such new age methods. Most of these do not make specific claims that would be testable by the scientific method; associating NLP with them makes NLP appear to be only another get-rich-quick scam or even a cult.

Now for the good news…
All NLP processes include specific testable outcomes, detailed systematic protocols for different kinds of problems, and clear operational tests in sensory-based experience to determine when a client has reached their outcomes. In addition, many NLP processes can be completed in a single session of an hour or less. Because of this, NLP would be much easier to research than most therapies which are much less structured and usually take place during many sessions over a period of weeks or months. Scientific research needs to be done in order to confirm (or disconfirm) the various processes and understandings that are typically included in the term “NLP.”

A diverse group of dedicated NLP-trained people have joined together in establishing the NLP Research and Recognition Project...
http://nlprandr.org/

... in an effort to propose, develop, and support relevant research by academic institutions, with the goal of doing high-quality research that actually tests NLP principles and methods. This could do a great deal to establish the legitimacy of NLP methods, as well as advance the practice of psychotherapy generally. The director of the project, Frank Bourke, a clinical psychologist with a strong research background, has been a tireless advocate, working with those of us in the NLP community plus those in government organizations and universities, in efforts to establish studies. So far these efforts have come quite close to having funding for large scale studies several times. This is really quite a testament to Frank’s diligence and persistence, because it is not an easy thing to get through all the levels of “hoops” to gain this approval.

Although little or no research is currently being done directly on NLP processes, there is quite a lot of academic research that supports NLP indirectly. NLP methods and principles are being “rediscovered” in bits and pieces in a wide variety of research studies. Following are a few examples.

Treating PTSD and trauma using dissociation
Sufferers who were asked to write about their traumatic memories in “third person” as if they were happening to someone else (“He was hit by a car and thrown 60 feet into a roadside ditch.”) recovered more quickly than a control group. Writing in third person requires viewing these events at a distance, as if they were happening to someone else, a way of creating dissociation.

In parallel research
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/are-we-born-racist/201106/how-work-through-experiences-discrimination

Ayduk and Kross contrast two alternative ways of working through highly emotional experiences. A self-immersed perspective is one in which we try to remember the experience at the same time that we try to analyze it — for example, when we say to ourselves, ‘Why did that prejudiced comment get to me so much?’ By contrast, a self-distanced perspective analyzes the same experience as if you yourself were a third-party observer, a kind of fly on the wall — ‘Why did that prejudiced comment get to him so much?’ In both cases, you are trying to understand the emotions, but when you do this in the first person, the pull of the emotion can overwhelm understanding.

It seems amazing that a small change in the way one analyzes a painful experience (using s/he as opposed to I) can lead to such dramatic results, but the research on this is solid and clear. In one study, people who were prompted to recall a negative experience from a self-distanced perspective (why did s/he feel this way?) in the lab felt less distressed about the experience one week later compared to those who recalled a similarly negative experience from a self-immersed perspective (why did I feel this way?). In other studies, people who spontaneously self-distance have been shown to ruminate less about negative experiences and are less likely to be hostile when disagreements come up.

Timelines
In research by Prof. Dov Shmotkin of Tel Aviv University Department of Psychology in Israel, ...
http://www.brainmysteries.com/research/Re-evaluating_the_time_of_your_life.asp

...“We discovered that overcoming trauma was related to how people organized the memory of their trauma on the larger time continuum of their life course.” In a study of Holocaust survivors, Prof. Shmotkin separated these survivors into those who considered the “Holocaust as past” and those who conceived of the “Holocaust as present.” Those in the ‘Holocaust as past” category were able to draw an effective line between the present day and the past trauma, thus allowing themselves to move forward. Those in the “Holocaust as present” category considered their traumatic experience as still existing, which indicated a difficulty in containing the trauma within a specific time limit.

Motivation, specific outcomes and behavioral change
Recently the BPS Research Digest (well worth a free subscription)...
http://bps-research-digest.blogspot.com/

... summarized a couple of recent studies done on changing behavior:

In rich countries, temptation is never far and many of us struggle to achieve our long-term aims of moderation, dedication and fidelity. An increasingly popular strategy for regaining control is to form so-called implementation intentions. Rather than having the vague goal to eat less or exercise more, you spell out when, where and how you will perform a given activity. For example, ‘When in the cafeteria at lunch I will buy orange juice rather than cola.’ A more specific variant is to form an ‘if-then’ plan, as in ‘If it is a Tuesday morning, then I will go for a run.’

Past research has found these plans to be successful, helping people to live more healthily. There’s even evidence that they are particularly beneficial to those who have had their willpower compromised by brain damage or by taxing laboratory tasks. Two new studies add to this literature, one of them cautionary, the other more hopeful.

Sue Churchill and Donna Jessop studied 323 students tasked with eating more fruit and vegetables. They found that implementation intentions helped students achieve this task over a 7-day period, but only if they scored low on a measure of ‘urgency,’ as revealed by their agreement or not with statements like, ‘When I am upset, I often act without thinking.’ The researchers said this suggests implementation intentions may not be a panacea: ‘Ironically, people who possess poor self-regulatory skills insofar as they tend to act on impulse when distressed, who are arguably most in need of assistance in achieving their goals, may benefit least from behavior change interventions based on implementation intention formation.’ . . .

“Urgency” appears to be identical to “Impulsivity,” so it is not surprising that those people will have difficulty following through on a plan, even if the “when, where and how you will perform a given activity” is specified. Impulsivity can often be reduced by changing the timeline, or other interventions that expand the scope of what is attended to in the present when responding to temptation — for instance by including a representation of consequences in a client’s images of alternative choices.

. . . That’s the cautionary news. The good news comes from a study by Barbel Knauper and her colleagues who found that using mental imagery boosted the benefit of implementation intentions for students attempting to increase their fruit consumption over seven days. Rather than merely forming an if-then plan, such as ‘If I see orange juice at lunch, then I will buy it,’ they also imagined themselves performing this act, with as much sensory detail as possible. A promising result, and the researchers expressed their surprise that no-one had thought to investigate the combination of these two strategies before.

This result comes as no surprise to anyone with even basic training in NLP. Imagining “themselves performing this act, with as much sensory detail as possible” has been a standard and essential part of rehearsing or “future-pacing” any behavioral change. And if done well, an “impulsive” person will often “impulsively” choose what has been rehearsed. (See my blog post, Programming yourself now to remember later.)
http://realpeoplepress.com/blog/programming-yourself-now-to-remember-later-future-pacing-nlp

This study does not report any checking for objecting parts and satisfying them before a final future-pace, so presumably their results would have been even stronger if they had done that.

Nonverbal rapport and empathy
Research on “mirror neurons” has established a neurological basis for nonverbal mirroring of gestures and movements, ...
http://realpeoplepress.com/blog/

...the foundation for the nonverbal rapport that has been a key feature of NLP trainings since the 1970s, as well as for compassion, and “stepping into someone else’s shoes.” Recent research in this area distinguishes between neurons that only fire when someone moves accidentally, or with deliberate intent, showing that the perception of intent (which has also been a major intervention in NLP for over 30 years) has an inherent neurological basis.

Negative reframing
Susan Clancy’s research on people who had experienced childhood sexual abuse...
http://traumamyth.com/

... finds that surprisingly, the vast majority of them were not traumatized by it, and that of those who were, some were not traumatized at the time, but only years later when it was reframed as a horrible experience as a result of listening to the opinions of others who presupposed that it would have life-long harmful effects. So some of what is called PTSD is not an echo of the experience itself, but a result of evaluating the experience after the fact — sometimes years later.

Synesthesias
John Bargh’s research...
http://bargh.socialpsychology.org/

... focuses on “unconscious mechanisms that underlie social perception, evaluation and preferences, and motivation and goal pursuit in realistic and complex social environments.” In one example, interviewers asked interviewees to hold a cup while they asked them questions. The only difference between the experimental and control groups was that the cup held either warm coffee or a cold drink. Those holding the warm coffee expressed more positive responses than those holding the cold drink. These experiments involve synesthesias — crossover effects between different sensory modalities — in this case transforming the perception of physical warmth into interpersonal warmth. Attention to synesthesias has long been a staple of NLP training — and it is also strong support for nonverbal unconscious factors in rapport, responsiveness, and change.

Self-control and submodalities (the smaller parameters in each of the five sensory modalities).
http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/05/18/090518fa_fact_lehrer

The ability of small children to exert self-control when presented with marshmallows (If they were successful in delaying, they got two marshmallows instead of one) correlated with success later in life (age 32). When the children were asked how they were able to delay, they said that either they deliberately distracted their attention from temptation by looking somewhere else, or doing something else. Some pretended that the real marshmallow was only a flat picture of a marshmallow — an explicit submodality shift that is used in a number of NLP patterns.

Summary
This is only a very small sampling of current research studies that support various aspects of NLP practice and methodology, and more appear each week. There is a lot of research that supports NLP principles, but it is not identified as such. If all these studies were collected into a review article, it would provide quite impressive support. Meanwhile, a few of us continue to explore the boundaries of what we already know and can do.
http://realpeoplepress.com/blog/



  • 1
Требуется перевод.

Плохая новость - нет перевода.

I am often asked whether there is any “hard science” academic research that supports NLP. There is some good news, and some bad news.

Меня часто спрашивают, есть ли "жесткие науки" научных исследований, поддерживающий НЛП. Существует некоторые хорошие новости, и плохие новости.

Эх, я понимаю Стива, но он делают только одну хорошую мину, за которой ничего нет. За почти сорок лет существования НЛП никаких фундаментальных исследований в их основание так и не было положено.

First the bad news… (If you don’t like bad news, feel free to skip or skim this section.)

Точно так же можно не читать и следующего раздела с "хорошими" новостями. Ибо и в нем нет ничкаких фундаментальных научных исследований.

Most of the research directly on NLP concepts was done in the 1980s and 1990s; little or no research has been done directly on NLP in the last decade or so. The vast majority of studies that were done earlier addressed the concept of a primary representational system (PRS) — that people are primarily visual, auditory, or kinesthetic — or the impact of matching sensory predicates on rapport.

И вот, сказано - поначалу (в 80 - 90 годах) исследовали одни только репрезентативные системы и ключи глазного доступа (типичные названия для российского контекста НЛП).

ФЕНОМЕНЫ СП И КГД МАЛОЙ ЧАСТОТЫ ВСТРЕЧАЕМОСТИ

There’s a problem with this. Bandler and Grinder had introduced the idea of a PRS primarily as a teaching tool in the 1970s, to direct students’ attention to people’s sensory predicates and eye accessing. Soon after that, they pointed out that the idea of a PRS was a deliberate and gross oversimplification, only somewhat true in a particular problem context. Despite this, the bulk of research, supposedly “on NLP” at that time was done in an attempt to verify or disconfirm this concept.

По поводу сенсорных предикатов (СП) и ключей глазного доступа (КГД) Стив пишет категорически неверно.

То, что БиГи вводили СП и КГД в качестве именно эдаких учебных пособий имеет отношение только к тому, как они организовывали занятия на своей экспериментальной группе первонелперов.

В отношении же отдельно взятых СП и КГД - они являются первичными феноменами человеческой активности (ЧА), потенциально чрезвычайно полезными для дальнейшего моделирования.

Идея использования СП и КГД была не упрощена и не была усложнена. Тут дело в ОРГАНИЧЕСКОЙ НЕДОСТАТОЧНОСТИ ТЕОРИИ И ПРАКТИКИ МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЯ, которые на тот момент и в последующем использовали БиГи.

В связи с методологической недостаточностью теории моделирования из репертуара БиГов, феномены СП и КГД так и не получили полноценной разработки. Это значит, они не прошли по всему "конвейеру" моделирования: феномен - паттерн - модель - техника и т.д.

По этой же причине смелые и мегареволюционные БиГи так и не набрались смелости конкретно заявить, что СПОНТАННАЯ ЧАСТОТА СОВМЕСТНОЙ ВСТРЕЧАЕМОСТИ ФЕНОМЕНОВ СП И КГД В ЭКСПРЕССИИ РЯДОВЫХ СУБЪЕКТОВ ЕСТЬ ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНО НИЗКАЯ - она есть гораздо менее 50%. Т.е. с точки зрения традиционной науки в этом месте никаких закономерностей не наблюдается. А в этом же месте следует отметить, что СПОНТАННОЕ СОВМЕСТНОЕ проявление феноменов СП и КГД является СВЯЗУЮЩИМ ПАТТЕРНОМ и определяет возможность дальнейшей привычной в методологии традиционной науки - "научной" жизни извлекаемых моделей, техник, практик, теорий, экспериментов и т.п.

Так что феномены СП и КГД имеют полноценное право на дальнейшую разработку, только не методами науки, а МЕТОДАМИ МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЯ. Именно в зарождающихся методах моделирования БиГи и предприняли попытку разработать обсуждаемые феномены ЧА. Но, проделали эту работу лишь частично. Они описали сами феномены, но недостаточно раскрыли их на уровне паттернов. Они, фактически, НЕ ОПИСАЛИ МОДЕЛИ, СВЯЗЫВАЮЩЕЙ СП И КГД. Техники предложены были. На этом все.

На что же похожа модель, связывающая СП и КГД? Ее характерной особенностью будет/есть описание процесса "упаковки"/"распаковки" соответствующей ментальной информации.

По всем этим вопросам у нас в метапрактике написаны тексты на добрую книгу.

As those of you with significant NLP Training will already know, whether or not people have a PRS is not in any way central to the field of NLP. We didn’t even mention it in our book Heart of the Mind (1989)...
http://www.realpeoplepress.com/heart-mind-p-36.html


То, что Стив не упомянул СП и КГД в кн. Сердце разума не выкидывает из строки то, что предшествующие его работы опирались в значительной мере на эти модели. И в своей реальной практике, что можно заметить на флешках, Стив учитывает данные СП и КГД.

Учитывает, но не упоминает, потому что у него были разборки с Бандлером по поводу авторства на определенные темы.

Такое разночтение в отношении СП и КГД, фактически, лишает последователей Стива работать так же эффективно, как и он.

В общем, все как всегда. И большом и в малом. В империи добра и демократии никакой истины не найти никогда.

ТРИУМВИРАТ

...introducing people to the field, because we didn’t consider it important or useful. PRS doesn’t really have anything to do with the effectiveness of the many methods that we have come to rely on in NLP to get results for people wanting change in their lives. When I sit down with someone to do a session, I can’t recall ever asking myself, “What is this person’s PRS?” It’s just not a useful question to ask.

Мне чрезвычайно жаль, что репликами, типа которая сделана, выше Стив Андреас занимает/ставит себя на почетное место в ряду триумвирата, который за годы слил НЛП в ноль. Это как рисовали портреты Маркса-Энгельса-Ленина. Ну и в НЛП триумвират: Гриндера-Банделера-Андреаса. Но, почему я всегда так хвалю Стива А. а теперь так накидываюсь на него? А причина проста. Стив А. по-настоящему прикидывается и делает вид, что ему неведом процесс автоматизации по ходу выработки навыков. И ему, проработавшему с концепцией субмодальностей много много лет теперь и не нужно спрашивать себя на осознанном уровне типа а какие у этого клиента КГД-стратегии или чего-то еще такое. Потому что подсознание Стива А. все это знает "на зубок". Но, то что знает подсознание Стива А., то совершенно не знает подсознание зеленого практика нлп. Не знает это и подсознание типичного отечественного мастера нлп. Да и тренерское подсознание не знает. Потому что у нас так и не возникла и не укоренилась культура работы с этими проявления человеческой активности. Из всего этого следует, что развитие НЛП Стива А. с недавних пор интересовать перестало. Так что если вы хотите освоить это НЛП - не верьте Стиву А. ЗАДАВАЙТЕ КАЛИБРОВОЧНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ ПО КГД.

At the same time, it is often useful to notice what sensory channel the client is using at the moment, or what sensory channel underlies the “problem.” For example it can be useful to notice that someone’s unpleasant feelings result from a critical inner voice, or to notice that many large and close movies of things to do leads to feeling overwhelmed.

Ну вот, а в в соседнем абзаце уже оказывается полезным отметить сенсорный каналы/модальности, в которой у пациента сосредоточены проблемы или же ресурсы. Но, это невозможно сделать без четкого изучения КГД-предикатов.

МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ ВСЕХ МОЖЕТ УРАВНЯТЬ!

Investigating Primary Representation System is a bit like Nasrudin looking for his lost car keys under the street lamp “because the light is better here,” even though he lost them somewhere else. PRS was perceived to be an “easy” thing to study, but the results of those studies don’t tell us anything about the field of NLP.

И в случае по вопросу Первичной Репрезентативной Системы (ПРС) главный вопрос состоит в том, что исходный феномен ПРС является низкочастотным. Он не так часто встречается в жизни. Это значит, что есть субъекты, у которых в значительной мере выражено наличие преобладания только одной ПРС и другие эффекты ее проявления. А у других - вообще не выражено. Если просуммировать тех и других и взять "среднестатистическую температуру по палате", то получится одна ерунда. И мистер Стив А. об этом прекрасно знает. Но он пишет черт знает что. Он тем сливает НЛП.

Но, м.б. кто-то бы спросил типа это будет неэкономно: для тех у кого ПРС есть с ним надо "возиться". А у тех у кого его практически нет - с ними что делать?

Но, в том-то и дело, что МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ ВСЕХ УРАВНИВАЕТ. Если вы применяете развитую модель и технику Ведущей/Первичной Репрезентативной Системы - У КАЖДОГО СУБЪЕКТА ОБНАРУЖИТСЯ ПРС и с этим можно весьма ресурсно работать. И этот эффект "уравнивания" всех - он имеет отношение только к методологии и техникам моделирования. В этом месте мы четко прописали в чем совпадает процесс ведения научных исследований и моделирования, но и в чем другом они РАДИКАЛЬНО расходятся:
моделирование и научная статистика
http://metapractice.livejournal.com/240780.html


ОТТДУШИНА НЕГАТИВНЫХ ПРОЕКЦИЙ ВАЛИДИЗАТОРОВ

It’s also worth noting that the studies themselves were often full of research errors. The questionnaires used in an attempt to assess PRS often had confusing self-report questions like, “Do you see yourself as a feeling person,” or “Do you feel you are an auditory person?” As that kind of question clearly reveals, most experimenters were not trained in NLP, did not understand what they were researching, and did not use anyone trained in NLP as a consultant to review their experimental protocols. As a result, there was no control of the language used in the studies, nor control of nonverbal confounding variables such as gestures or voice tone.

При этом стоит отметить, что большинство "научных" исследований валидизации НЛП выполнялось весьма низкоуровневыми научными исследователями. И вот, этот второй/третий сорт научных исследователей начинает составлять какие-то горе-опросники в адрес нлп. И эти опросники выразили, скорее, проекции и отрицательное отношение СТОРОННИХ валидизаторов НЛП. И эти проекции показали - НЛП есть мракобесие.

ЧТО НАМ ИЗ ТОГО, ЧТО СВЕТОФОР И ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКИЙ ГЛАЗ МИГАЮ

For instance, when matching a subject’s visual predicate with a sentence like, “I see what you mean,” a higher-pitched voice, looking up, or a pointing gesture in the upper visual field will be congruent with visual processing, and be more likely to result in rapport. However, a lower-pitched voice, looking down, or a palm-up gesture in the lower visual field will be incongruent, and be less likely to lead to rapport. (Visual processing is typically accompanied by a high voice tone, looking up, and pointing gestures, while kinesthetic processing is often accompanied by a lower voice tone, looking down, and palm-up gesturing.)

В этом месте Стиву А. уместнее не описывать нам на сороковом году жизни НЛП какие феномены/фокусы возможны с КГД в целом и с Первичными Репрезентативными Сисстемами, а лучше бы объясниться по поводу "классического" калибровочного КГД-вопроса типа: "какой верхний глаз у светофора"? И объяснить нам, какую роль/кокой ресурс в этом вопросе передает тот факт, что и человеческий и светофорный ГЛАЗА МИГАЮТ !

As a result of these kinds of mistakes, most of the research was very poor quality. Not surprisingly, there is very little direct academic experimental support for NLP. A research committee working for the United States National Research Council in 1988 found little if any evidence to support NLP’s assumptions or to indicate that it was effective as a strategy for social influence. “It [NLP] assumes that by tracking another’s eye movements and language, an NLP trainer can shape the person’s thoughts, feelings, and opinions. There is no scientific support for these assumptions.”

Лично я придерживаюсь конспирологической версии, что в 1988 году некий исследовательский комитет, работавший в рамках национального управления по исследованиям просто решили слить НЛП. Так всем проще и спокойнее. В НЛП нет ничего научного. НЛП есть чистый ньюэйдж. Точка.

НУЖНЫ ЛИ БОЛЬШИЕ ДЕНЬГИ И "ПРОПИСКА"

To summarize, the research that has been done was on the wrong questions, by people who did not understand what they were trying to measure, ignoring linguistic and behavioral confounding variables, so of course the results were negative or inconclusive.

А зачем вообще обсуждать вульгарные исследования валидизации НЛП? А с другой стороны, без внятного объяснения ЧЕМ НЛП ОТЛИЧАЕТСЯ ОТ "НАУКИ" НИКОГДА НИКАКИЕ "ПРАВИЛЬНЫЕ" ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ ПО ВАЛИДИЗАЦИИ НЛП ПРОВЕСТИ НЕ УДАСТСЯ. Более того, не удастся доказать имеет ли НЛП право на самостоятельное научное существование.

Although researching NLP is definitely doable, effective research in the field of NLP is a challenge for a number of reasons: Psychological research costs quite a lot of money, which most NLPers do not have. Furthermore, if research is not done in a recognized academic institution, it is usually ignored, even if the double-blind controls and protocols are impeccable.

Научные исследования НЛП не требуют многих затрат, но мистер Стив А. утверждает обратное. Нужно ли обязательно "прописываться под крышу" солидных организаций - в этом вопросе могут быть разные мнения. Мистер Стив А. считает, что надо "прописываться". НЛП сорок лет прописывалось/стремилось прописаться и что в итоге?

ОТПРАВИТЬ В ОДНО МЕСТО

NLP’s focus on sensory process parameters makes it extremely hard to communicate with academics and mental health professionals, because it is so different from the typical psychiatric focus on content. For instance, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a recognized therapy that is most similar to NLP (and which has the strongest experimental support) focuses entirely on the content of internal auditory dialogue — the words that people say to themselves. CBT ignores the volume of the internal voice, its location in personal space, its direction, its tonality, and tempo, etc. Usually changing these process parameters has a much greater impact on experience than changing the content, and it is much easier. This is something that I have explored in great detail in my e-book Help With Negative Self-talk.
http://www.realpeoplepress.com/pages.php?page=selftalkebook


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) - отправить эту терапию в одно месте. Нам хватает проблем с самим НЛП.

Advocating rigorous research has not been easy or without resistance from within the field itself. The original developers, and a number of others in the field — some of them widely respected — have explicitly said that NLP is inherently unverifiable by scientific research. One widely regarded leader in the field has even said that since NLP is about subjective experience, it is inherently untestable.

Лидера НЛП, который отрицает возможность его научных исследований, надо отправить туда же, куда до этого отправили СВТ.

ДЕСТРУКТИВНЫЕ МАНИПУЛЯЦИИ РАБОЧИМ ТЕРМИНОМ "СУБЪЕКТИ

Advocating rigorous research has not been easy or without resistance from within the field itself. The original developers, and a number of others in the field — some of them widely respected — have explicitly said that NLP is inherently unverifiable by scientific research. One widely regarded leader in the field has even said that since NLP is about subjective experience, it is inherently untestable.

Нелперы, которые вне зависимости от их достигнутого "уровня" совершенства в НЛП, отрицают возможность тех или иных научных валидизаций и разработок в области НЛП - такие нелперы, фактически, отрицают возможность построения непротиворечивой "теории и практики моделирования". Ибо только через данную теорию НЛП может придти к науке.

This ignores the fact that dreams — the most subjective experiences that most of us will ever have — have been researched scientifically for decades. A variety of new methods of brain scanning make it possible to do all sorts of experimental work on internal mental events, some of which are not even subjective experiences! For instance, brain scans have been used to detect when a decision is about to be made by a subject seven seconds before the subject becomes aware that they have made a decision.
http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/04/mind_decision


Субъективные сны давно подвержены объективному исследованию. В настоящее время, если субъект способен заснуть в камере томографа, то исследованию могут быть подвергнуты даже СОДЕРЖАТЕЛЬНЫЕ компоненты его сна.

Т.е. опят-таки из-за отсутствия теории-практики моделирования рабочий термин "субъективное" становится предметом смысловой манипуляции как со стороны недобросовестных нелперов, так и со стороны представителей эээ низкопробной науки.

НЕЧЕГО НА ЗЕРКАЛО ПЕНЯТЬ, КОЛЬ РОЖА КРИВА

The lack of unified support for securing research grants within the field of NLP has made it awkward to approach potential researchers. Even more of a problem in my view, many who “do NLP” have combined NLP with reflexology, remote viewing, crystal healing, aromatherapy, aura reading, and a host of other such new age methods. Most of these do not make specific claims that would be testable by the scientific method; associating NLP with them makes NLP appear to be only another get-rich-quick scam or even a cult.

Источником настоящей аферы и даже культа будет НЛП-3. Но, НЛП-3 родилось из под пера со-создателя НЛП второй производной самого Роберта Дилтса. Так что это "пятая колонна" и пенять на Дилтсов серьезным нелперам нечего. "Дилтсы" решили прогрессировать в сторону ныне политически (без кавычек) модного мистического НЛП-3 Дилтса отпустило/заставило именно что отсутствие в НЛП официальной теории и практики моделирования.

Между тем, отсутствие никаких грантов не является препятствием для научных исследований в НЛП. Нет денег - делай исследования "на коленке". Между прочим, самом наука живет именно в таких же жестких условиях финансового лимита на действительно инновационные исследования. И всегда жило так. Так что, нечего на зеркало пенять, коль рожа крива. Поколения высокоуровневых нелперов просто зажрались легкой прибылью, которое все еще до сих пор дает преподавание НЛП. Но, вот вот уже давать перестанет. Иссяк источник без его подпитки.

Now for the good news…
All NLP processes include specific testable outcomes, detailed systematic protocols for different kinds of problems, and clear operational tests in sensory-based experience to determine when a client has reached their outcomes. In addition, many NLP processes can be completed in a single session of an hour or less. Because of this, NLP would be much easier to research than most therapies which are much less structured and usually take place during many sessions over a period of weeks or months. Scientific research needs to be done in order to confirm (or disconfirm) the various processes and understandings that are typically included in the term “NLP.”

Возможность показать "достижение клиентом конечных резулЬтатов" терапии это не научные исследования в области НЛП. Это профанация. Поменьше бы таких исследований.

A diverse group of dedicated NLP-trained people have joined together in establishing the NLP Research and Recognition Project...
http://nlprandr.org/


И вот, на за настоящие исследования в области НЛП уже несколько лет собираются выдать исследования только этих "хвостов" - типа как та или иная техника НЛП благотворно повлияла на клиента.

ХВОСТ ОТ СЛОНА

... in an effort to propose, develop, and support relevant research by academic institutions, with the goal of doing high-quality research that actually tests NLP principles and methods. This could do a great deal to establish the legitimacy of NLP methods, as well as advance the practice of psychotherapy generally. The director of the project, Frank Bourke, a clinical psychologist with a strong research background, has been a tireless advocate, working with those of us in the NLP community plus those in government organizations and universities, in efforts to establish studies. So far these efforts have come quite close to having funding for large scale studies several times. This is really quite a testament to Frank’s diligence and persistence, because it is not an easy thing to get through all the levels of “hoops” to gain this approval.

Нет никаких отдельных принципов, методов и тестов НЛП, которые могли бы продемонстрировать "науке" достаточную валидность НЛП. Ибо все такие принципы, методы и тесты оказались бы из разряда "гипнотических". Т.е. в лучшем случае, "наука" на все вышеуказанные потуги НЛП заявила бы, что НЛП есть разновидность гипноза. Но, причем такого гипноза, который науке неизвестен - а именно эриксонианского гипноза.

И вот, клинический психолог Фрэнк Брук в очередной раз обещает добыть деньги на исследования ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТИ ПСИХОТЕРАПИИ НА ОСНОВЕ ТЕХНИК НЛП. Можно перефразировать известную поговорку "как съесть слона". Слона надо есть, непременно, начиная с его хвоста.

Although little or no research is currently being done directly on NLP processes, there is quite a lot of academic research that supports NLP indirectly. NLP methods and principles are being “rediscovered” in bits and pieces in a wide variety of research studies. Following are a few examples.

Ну, косвенно, - почему бы косвенно не поисследовать НЛП.

Treating PTSD and trauma using dissociation
Sufferers who were asked to write about their traumatic memories in “third person” as if they were happening to someone else (“He was hit by a car and thrown 60 feet into a roadside ditch.”) recovered more quickly than a control group. Writing in third person requires viewing these events at a distance, as if they were happening to someone else, a way of creating dissociation.


Исследование PTSD не есть исследование НЛП. Если кто-то "машиной" был вышиблен в глубоко диссоциированное состояние, то в какой технике это выполнять в кабинете? Чем надо стукать клиента, чтобы вызвать сходный эффект. Но, если вы начнете вызывать диссоциацию словами - тогда надо не по авариям ездить, а исследовать гипнотические феномена эриксонианского подхода. Но, такие вещи вообще не стоят в планах "исследователей".

In parallel research
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/are-we-born-racist/201106/how-work-through-experiences-discrimination


Тут нужны не "параллельные исследования", но "перпендикулярные. И вовлечение "клинических" психологов тут далеко не "плюс".

ПЕРЕНЕСЕНИЕ ТЕХНИК В ЛАБОРАТОРИЮ НЕ ЕСТЬ "ИССЛЕДОВАНИ

Ayduk and Kross contrast two alternative ways of working through highly emotional experiences. A self-immersed perspective is one in which we try to remember the experience at the same time that we try to analyze it — for example, when we say to ourselves, ‘Why did that prejudiced comment get to me so much?’ By contrast, a self-distanced perspective analyzes the same experience as if you yourself were a third-party observer, a kind of fly on the wall — ‘Why did that prejudiced comment get to him so much?’ In both cases, you are trying to understand the emotions, but when you do this in the first person, the pull of the emotion can overwhelm understanding.

В этом месте указывается не на исследования НЛП, а на обычные описания техник. Ну, м.б. с некоторым в них "научным" углублением. Но, последнее слишком сомнительно.

It seems amazing that a small change in the way one analyzes a painful experience (using s/he as opposed to I) can lead to such dramatic results, but the research on this is solid and clear. In one study, people who were prompted to recall a negative experience from a self-distanced perspective (why did s/he feel this way?) in the lab felt less distressed about the experience one week later compared to those who recalled a similarly negative experience from a self-immersed perspective (why did I feel this way?). In other studies, people who spontaneously self-distance have been shown to ruminate less about negative experiences and are less likely to be hostile when disagreements come up.

И здесь, по-сути, описаны техники, частично/полностью перенесенные в лабораторный контекст. При этом, нет никакой уверенности, что при переходе в лабораторию "исследователи" сохраняют нужный контроль над задействованными пресупозциями ("воронкой" пресуппозиций).

Timelines. In research by Prof. Dov Shmotkin of Tel Aviv University Department of Psychology in Israel, ...
http://www.brainmysteries.com/research/Re-evaluating_the_time_of_your_life.asp

...“We discovered that overcoming trauma was related to how people organized the memory of their trauma on the larger time continuum of their life course.” In a study of Holocaust survivors, Prof. Shmotkin separated these survivors into those who considered the “Holocaust as past” and those who conceived of the “Holocaust as present.” Those in the ‘Holocaust as past” category were able to draw an effective line between the present day and the past trauma, thus allowing themselves to move forward. Those in the “Holocaust as present” category considered their traumatic experience as still existing, which indicated a difficulty in containing the trauma within a specific time limit.

И в этом случае мы имеет наблюдения из разряда "техник". Это не исследования НЛП. И эээ задействование пафосной тема Холокоста ничего в этом не меняет.

Итог: ПЕРЕНЕСЕНИЕ ТЕХНИК В ЛАБОРАТОРИЮ НЕ ДЕЛАЕТ ИХ АВТОМАТИЧЕСКИ "ИССЕДОВАНИЯМИ".

СОДРАНО ИЗ РАБОТ ЭРИСОНА

In rich countries, temptation is never far and many of us struggle to achieve our long-term aims of moderation, dedication and fidelity. An increasingly popular strategy for regaining control is to form so-called implementation intentions. Rather than having the vague goal to eat less or exercise more, you spell out when, where and how you will perform a given activity. For example, ‘When in the cafeteria at lunch I will buy orange juice rather than cola.’ A more specific variant is to form an ‘if-then’ plan, as in ‘If it is a Tuesday morning, then I will go for a run.’

Предписание занятиями физическими упражнениями типа для "фокусировки себя на целях" - это техники и терапия.

Исследования в духе эффективности "если-то" плана выполнены за полвека у Эриксона.

Past research has found these plans to be successful, helping people to live more healthily. There’s even evidence that they are particularly beneficial to those who have had their willpower compromised by brain damage or by taxing laboratory tasks. Two new studies add to this literature, one of them cautionary, the other more hopeful.

Все это не просто скопировано - ЭТО СОДРАНО ИЗ РАБОТ ЭРИСОНА, который проводил лабораторные исследования эффективности таких внушений/методик/техник.

Sue Churchill and Donna Jessop studied 323 students tasked with eating more fruit and vegetables. They found that implementation intentions helped students achieve this task over a 7-day period, but only if they scored low on a measure of ‘urgency,’ as revealed by their agreement or not with statements like, ‘When I am upset, I often act without thinking.’ The researchers said this suggests implementation intentions may not be a panacea: ‘Ironically, people who possess poor self-regulatory skills insofar as they tend to act on impulse when distressed, who are arguably most in need of assistance in achieving their goals, may benefit least from behavior change interventions based on implementation intention formation.’ .

"Выгода от формирования намерения": Эриксон, Сатир, Перлс, БиГи. Все это уже давным давно сделано.

“Urgency” appears to be identical to “Impulsivity,” so it is not surprising that those people will have difficulty following through on a plan, even if the “when, where and how you will perform a given activity” is specified. Impulsivity can often be reduced by changing the timeline, or other interventions that expand the scope of what is attended to in the present when responding to temptation — for instance by including a representation of consequences in a client’s images of alternative choices.

Уменьшение импульсивности за счет корректировки индивидуальной временной шкалы. Подробнейшие исследования на эту тему задукоментированы/выполнены самим Стивом и Коннирой Андреас. Т.е. получается, те кто повторяет в исследованиях уже давно известные вещи, они типа как игнорируют предшественников. Стив радуется таким исследованиям. Но, в других областях знаний такие "перепроверки" эквивалентны "пересмотру истории" в политике. Я лично отношу такие перепроверки к продолжающемуся сливу НЛП. На следующем этапе перепроверяющие немного изменят "настройки" и от НЛП вообще ничего не останется. Даже "хвоста от слона".

ТЕХНИКИ И ПЛАГИАТ - "ЗАПРЕТНОЕ УДОВОЛЬСТВИЕ"

. . . That’s the cautionary news. The good news comes from a study by Barbel Knauper and her colleagues who found that using mental imagery boosted the benefit of implementation intentions for students attempting to increase their fruit consumption over seven days. Rather than merely forming an if-then plan, such as ‘If I see orange juice at lunch, then I will buy it,’ they also imagined themselves performing this act, with as much sensory detail as possible. A promising result, and the researchers expressed their surprise that no-one had thought to investigate the combination of these two strategies before.

Нашли, что сочетание содержания двух визуальных стратегий имеет эффект синергии - более чем двойную от их простого сложения эффективность - чистые техники. Т.е. это не исследования, а работа над техниками. Дизайн техник - как называл это Джон Гриндер.

This result comes as no surprise to anyone with even basic training in NLP. Imagining “themselves performing this act, with as much sensory detail as possible” has been a standard and essential part of rehearsing or “future-pacing” any behavioral change. And if done well, an “impulsive” person will often “impulsively” choose what has been rehearsed. (See my blog post, Programming yourself now to remember later.)
http://realpeoplepress.com/blog/programming-yourself-now-to-remember-later-future-pacing-nlp


Ну вот, сами об этом же и пишут. Результат сложения визуальных стратегий есть тривиальный.

This study does not report any checking for objecting parts and satisfying them before a final future-pace, so presumably their results would have been even stronger if they had done that.

Да еще и примитивная техника без экологической проверки. Брррр.

Nonverbal rapport and empathy. Research on “mirror neurons” has established a neurological basis for nonverbal mirroring of gestures and movements, ...
http://realpeoplepress.com/blog/


По зеркальным нейронам уже пишут книги. А вот, по исследованию двигательных паттернов невербального раппорта - нет ничего нового. И в данном исследовании нет. Но, вы можете мне не верить, пойти по ссылке и найти нечто новое о невербальном раппорте. Держу пари.

...the foundation for the nonverbal rapport that has been a key feature of NLP trainings since the 1970s, as well as for compassion, and “stepping into someone else’s shoes.” Recent research in this area distinguishes between neurons that only fire when someone moves accidentally, or with deliberate intent, showing that the perception of intent (which has also been a major intervention in NLP for over 30 years) has an inherent neurological basis.

Вот именно, открытие зеркальных нейронов подвело формальную нейрологическую базу под феномен невербального раппорта. Но, пока ни одной новой модели, нет техник и т.п.

Negative reframing. Susan Clancy’s research on people who had experienced childhood sexual abuse...
http://traumamyth.com/
... finds that surprisingly, the vast majority of them were not traumatized by it, and that of those who were, some were not traumatized at the time, but only years later when it was reframed as a horrible experience as a result of listening to the opinions of others who presupposed that it would have life-long harmful effects. So some of what is called PTSD is not an echo of the experience itself, but a result of evaluating the experience after the fact — sometimes years later.


Сексуальное насилие в детстве. "И твое влагалише может схватить любой член и за некоторое время превратить его в жалко свисающую тряпку, ПОЛУЧАЯ ПРИ ЭТОМ ЗАПРЕТНОЕ УДОВОЛЬСТВИЕ". Это Эрисон за много много лет до "открытий" Susan Clancy, которая тупо в него даже не заглядывала.

АССОЦИАЦИИ ВМЕСТО СИНЕСТЕЗИИ И Т.П.

Synesthesias. John Bargh’s research...
http://bargh.socialpsychology.org/
... focuses on “unconscious mechanisms that underlie social perception, evaluation and preferences, and motivation and goal pursuit in realistic and complex social environments.” In one example, interviewers asked interviewees to hold a cup while they asked them questions. The only difference between the experimental and control groups was that the cup held either warm coffee or a cold drink. Those holding the warm coffee expressed more positive responses than those holding the cold drink. These experiments involve synesthesias — crossover effects between different sensory modalities — in this case transforming the perception of physical warmth into interpersonal warmth. Attention to synesthesias has long been a staple of NLP training — and it is also strong support for nonverbal unconscious factors in rapport, responsiveness, and change.


Влияние температуры чашки кофе во время интервью было АССОЦИАТИВНЫМ, а не "синестетическим". Данное "исследование" и исследованием-то назвать ни как нельзя.

Self-control and submodalities (the smaller parameters in each of the five sensory modalities).
http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/05/18/090518fa_fact_lehrer
The ability of small children to exert self-control when presented with marshmallows (If they were successful in delaying, they got two marshmallows instead of one) correlated with success later in life (age 32). When the children were asked how they were able to delay, they said that either they deliberately distracted their attention from temptation by looking somewhere else, or doing something else. Some pretended that the real marshmallow was only a flat picture of a marshmallow — an explicit submodality shift that is used in a number of NLP patterns.


Использование влияния субмодальностей на поведение маленьких детей. В режиме близком к технике. Это даже БиГи делали в изобилии. И что в этом нового?

Summary
This is only a very small sampling of current research studies that support various aspects of NLP practice and methodology, and more appear each week. There is a lot of research that supports NLP principles, but it is not identified as such. If all these studies were collected into a review article, it would provide quite impressive support. Meanwhile, a few of us continue to explore the boundaries of what we already know and can do.
http://realpeoplepress.com/blog/


Большая гора мусора не превратиться в гору алмазов. В данном обзоре нет ничего по исследованиям в области развития НЛП.

Что такое исследования, которые поддерживают типа "принципы" НЛП я боюсь себе представить.

Никаких "границ" в приведенных исследованиях совершенно точно не исследуется.

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